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The Science



Polysaccharides (carbohydrates from Giant Pacific Sea Kelp) forms complexes by surrounding (sequestering) the mineral to form a protected water soluble substance. Upon digestion of the carbohydrate, the metal is released into the digesta of the intestine and is subject to chemical reaction with compounds in the digesta which may or may not enhance potential for absorption. The advantages are that the mineral is sequestered and not available for reaction with vitamins or antibiotics in dry or liquid feeds.


The mineral forms a complex salt or coordination compound with a specific amino acid such as glycine, methionine, histidine, or cysteine. The cation (positively charged mineral) is bound to the amino and carboxyl groups of the amino acid. The advantage is a well defined chemical entity with a fixed ratio of mineral to amino acid.

Organic Minerals – METAL PROTEINATE:

A mineral or metal proteinate is a chelated or complexed compound derived from the interaction of a multivalent cation (metal) with amino acids or protein digest fragments such as soy protein isolate. This chemical binding make these minerals non-reactive with vitamins and antibiotics. It is generally theorized among the scientific community that most minerals must be complexed with amino acids or peptides to facilitate absorption. Providing the animal with minerals already complexed with peptides results in less opportunity for the mineral to react with compounds in the digesta that may decrease the biological availability to the animal and increases the opportunities for absorption.


Chelating agents (ligands) are molecules which possess at least two electron donating groups that are capable of forming a ring structure with metal ions. The normal donor atons are oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Of particular interest are the chelating agents that may be present in the digesta of the intestine, including amino acids (glycine, cystine, cysteine, and histidine), peptides, proteins, heterocyclic compounds such as ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and organic acids (oxalic acid, formic acid, citric acid, acetic acid and especially phytic acid). Natural feeds that have strong chelating properties include dry malt residues and molasses. Binding of minerals to chelating agents does not always increase the biological availability, and in the case of phytic acid, dramatically decreases biological availability of zinc.


Chelate means “to claw or to form a claw”. Chelation is a chemical reaction that forms a ring structure, often with the metal being incorporated as part of a 5 or 6 membered ring structure. It may be defined as an equilibrium reaction between a metal ion and a complexing agent. Chelation involves at least two electrons or electron donating groups, normally involving oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. This reaction results in a coordinate covalent bond and completion of the electron shell of the central ion.


Ionophores are compounds that facilitate the transport of ions across natural and artificial membranes. They usually find use in mechanisms for transport in biological systems. The most common examples of ionophores are Rumensin and Bovatec.

AAFCO (American Association of Feed Control Officials)


Organic Minerals – METAL PROTEINATEis the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as an ingredient as the specific metal proteinate: i.e. Copper Proteinate, Zinc Proteinate, Magnesium Proteinate, Iron Proteinate, Cobalt Proteinate, Manganese Proteinate or Calcium Proteinate. (Proposed 1967, Adopted 1970, Amended 1977, Amended 1987.)

Not intended to take the place of your veterinarian's advice and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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